C. difficile can produce several toxins. The two best understood are enterotoxin (toxin A) and cytotoxin (toxin B). Both cause diarrhea and inflammation in infected patients. Which is the worst is the subject of some debate.
What are c diff toxins?
Toxin A – TcdA is one of the largest bacterial toxins known. It is an enterotoxin which attacks the mucosal secretions of the intestine. The integrity of cell walls is damaged and they die and increased chlorine activity takes place.
Toxin B – This toxin is a cytotoxin – with similar results to that noted for Toxin A. It is a major virulence factor. It provokes the opening of tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells. This makes the cells more permeable and induces hemorrhaging. It is recent studies that suggest the role that it has to play with previous research more focused on Toxin A
How are they detected?
Testing is important in order to distinguish an ordinary diarrhea attack from one provoked by c.difficile. There are tests that look for either toxin a or b using the nucleic acid amplification test (NAATs) method. These are more sensitive than methods using toxigenic culture but because of this may detect c difficile that is still in its benign state – the patients symptoms may have another cause.
Are c diff toxins in all c.difficile bacteria?
Non toxigenic c difficile is not uncommon. Studies indicate however that the nontoxigenic varieties resolve better with conventional treatment causing shorter hospital stays and fewer patient deaths.
How do c diff toxins cause an active infection?
The toxins damage the intestinal mucosa and cause the symptoms of C. difficile infection. Animal models suggest that TcdA provokes diarrhea, neutrophil infiltration, inflammation of intestinal mucosa, and necrosis of internal epithelial cells. This toxin is considered the main cause of CDAC. It causes cell erosion and fluid leakage in damaged areas. This results in the diarrhea often seen with an active Clostridium difficile infection.
Other Key C Difficile Pages
- C Diff Bacteria – what is it? 20 questions answered
- C Diff Smell – 6 Key Facts for You
- What are C Diff toxins?
- C Diff Colitis: What is it – 7 answers for you
- How does C Diff make you ill?
- C Diff diagnosis? – How do you know you have c diff?
- C Diff Symptoms: 4 Key facts you should know now
- What is C Diff – your guide to prevention, symptoms and treatment
Latest News on C Difficile Toxins
- Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxins and laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections. - PubMed - NCBI
- PLOS ONE: Growth Patterns of Clostridium difficile – Correlations with Strains, Binary Toxin and Disease Severity: A Prospective Cohort Study
- High Mobility Group Box1 Protein Is Involved in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced by Clostridium difficile Toxin A. - PubMed - NCBI
- Coordination between T helper cells, iNKT cells, and their follicular helper sub-sets in the humoral immune response against Clostridium difficile ... - PubMed - NCBI
- A Size-Exclusion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Clostridium difficile Vaccine Toxins. - PubMed - NCBI
- Identification of an Essential Region for Translocation of Clostridium difficile Toxin B. - PubMed - NCBI